Suitability of the Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States potency test for diphtheria toxoid

TitleSuitability of the Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States potency test for diphtheria toxoid
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1994
AuthorsGupta, RK, Higham, S, Gupta, CK, Rost, B, Siber, GR
JournalBiologicals
Volume22
Pagination65-72
KeywordsAnimals *Diphtheria Antitoxin/blood *Diphtheria Toxoid/administration & dosage Guinea Pigs Immunization Neutralization Tests Titrimetry Vero Cells
Abstract

The in vitro Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in immunized guinea pig sera was standardized to obtain comparable results to the in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test in guinea pigs used to test potency of adsorbed diphtheria toxoid according to the United States Minimum Requirements. In the Vero cell method, the antitoxin titers of the guinea pig sera, obtained 4 weeks after immunization, were markedly dependent on the toxin dose level used in the assay. A toxin dose level termed the Lcd/1 dose (limit of cytopathic dose at 1 IU/ml) for Vero cell method gave comparable estimates of antitoxin activity to the in vivo TN method performed at L+/1 dose of toxin. The Lcd/1 toxin dose level for the Vero cell method is defined as the minimum concentration of diphtheria toxin required to produce a cytopathic effect on Vero cells in 4 days when the solution of diphtheria toxin is mixed with an equal volume of standard diphtheria antitoxin whose concentration is 1 IU/ml. When lower dose levels of toxin were used in the Vero cell assay (Lcd/10 to Lcd/1000), the concentrations of antitoxin in 4 weeks guinea pig sera were 2 to 11.7 times lower than with the Lcd/1 dose level and similarly lower than those measured by the in vivo TN test at L+/1 level. In contrast, the concentration of antitoxin measured in sera from guinea pigs who have been boosted with diphtheria toxoid increased approximately two-fold with the Lcd/1000 dose level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)